Практика перекладу: Механізм фінансування окремих робіт
MODEL OF BEST PRACTICE:

«ACTIVITY BASED FUNDING»

"...Assistance to creation of the infrastructure to small business development..."

From the National Programme to Support Small Entrepreneurship Development in Ukraine

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

A fundamental issue facing any support mecha­nism for support of enterprise is how to fund it. In most instances there are typically two main sources of funds that may be available: internally generated revenues (from selling products and services to clients); and external funds (through grants, loans, subsidies etc. of governmental bod­ies or donor organizations).

An important principle underpinning much gov­ernmental or donor support is that organizations should evolve and move towards sustainability over time. A consequence of this is that the ratio between the proportion of overall funding con­tributed by internally- and externally generated funding will typically move towards an increas­ing reliance on self-generated internal sources of funding on the part of an enterprise support organization. Financing mechanisms therefore need to be designed to explicitly address this requirement. Activity Based Funding is one such method that can be used. It is a financing concept and mechanism that was developed for the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development of Enterprise (ADEs).

The development of the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development of Enterprise (ADEs) faced the problem of how new agencies could best be set up and financed as it sought to achieve a rapid geographic expansion. Whilst the first of the ADEs were traditional, fully donor funded business support centers, encouragement of small consultancy practices to join the network led to all its members, including the early business centers, becoming subject to a system of payment for activities undertaken - Activity Based Funding.

Instead of fully financing an Agency, ABF was linked directly to mutually agreed types and vol­umes of activities undertaken by each agency. Payment was made on the basis of the agreed level of activities being met (but not exceeded) given that all agreed activities (e.g. type of course, target group, planned output etc) were met.

The merits of this funding system are that activi­ties and outputs are clearly linked. Further it is a system that allows for funding of external client delivery, as well as internal organizational devel­opment. One of the great advantages is that it offered great flexibility in funding activities in ADEs.

As the network matured it has developed a shared portfolio of services, with each individual agency securing its own SME customer base. Over time the ABF concept has been modified, eventually moving to Fixed Price Contracting.

CHOICE OF SOLUTION

In principle there were 3 different types of financ­ing mechanisms used for ADEs

1. Full funding — by the funding donor — of me
activities of an ADE (usually for two — three
months in the very initial stages of the ADE).

2. Activity Based Funding (ABF), whereby the
funding donor guaranteed that it would fund a
certain amount of the activities proposed by
the ADEs. This being conditional on all agreed
activities (type of course, target group, planned
output and so forth) of project planning, are
fulfilled. In this funding form ADEs have a
decision making input.

3. Fixed Priced Contracting (FPC) basically
offered the ADEs a contract, which identified
network-wide core SME activities that should
be fulfilled in order to receive funding. FPC
gives little room for decision-making input.

The ABF overall objective is to further the eco­nomic growth in Ukraine through the continued support to the development of the SME sector and the vehicles for such support.

APPROACH TAKEN

This Ukrainian SME best practice was funded by the European Union. The consultancy company implementing it was GFA Management of Ger­many. EU consultants were Philip Santens and Kevin Thorpe, the team leader was Bruce Harris.

The main purposes in implementing the ABF Model were to:

• Establish an Association Resource Centre
(ARC) that will guide, serve and monitor the
Tacis-funded SME support services and pro-
actively disseminate the expertise developed
throughout the local Ukrainian SME commu-nity;

• Maintain and develop the project's Ukrainian
contractors' performance in terms of number
of clients served, the quality of the services
delivered, and their cost effectiveness ;поши-
рювати фінансовані Програмою Tacis по­
слуги МСП на інші регіони України;

• Geographically extend the Tacis-funded SME
services to other regions of Ukraine;

• Develop the current ADE Network into a
broad based Association of SME Support
Organisations;

• Provide targeted financial and technical sup­
port to the Business Communication Centre's
(BCC) business match-making activities.

Direct Target Groups are: Ukrainian SMEs, business start-ups and foreign companies interest­ed in developing ties with local enterprises.

Indirect Target Groups: Management and staff of the existing and new Ukrainian contractors, local Ukrainian governmental agencies and insti­tutions involved in SME support and internation­al donor programmes and projects.

Activities:

• The establishment, development and operation
of an Association Resource Centre (ARC).

• The continuation of the Activity-Based
Funding (ABF) financing mechanism and the
development of ABF into the Fixed Price
Contracting (FPC) Business Development

• Service Providers' (BDS) financing mechanism.

• The geographic expansion of the SME sup­
port services delivered through the Tacis

• Project to new regions of Ukraine currently
not covered by the Project.

• The creation and development of a broad-
based ADE Association.

• The support to the activities undertaken by
the Business Communication Centre (BCC).

The ABF Turnkey Implementation guide was pre­pared, that consists of:

• Conditions of Funding Agreements;

• General obligations of the Network member;

• Action Plan;

• Schedule of Funding Agreement;

• Statement of Commitment;

• Changes to Action Plan:

The Action Plan Review and Planning Report

• Reporting Guidelines for Enterprise Network members.

The Funding Agreement forms a well-founded basis for:

• The support of the development of me SME sector in Ukraine by implementing a specific set of XXX activity-funded SME support services through the Network Member.

• The regulation of all administrative and legal
interactions between the EN PMU and the
Network Member,

• The assistance in developing the Network
Member's capacity as a self-sustainable SME
support entity in Ukraine.

A major factor of success for the overall imple­mentation of this project, will be the close moni­toring including reporting towards the Enterprise Network PMU (EN PMU) on the preparation and implementation of the different Action Plans devel­oped and executed by the EN Network members.

As such, draft-reporting guidelines have been de­veloped, which should assist you and your respec­tive counterpart in fulfilling the reporting require­ments vis-a-vis the EN PMU.

Based on the various discussions held, it is pro­posed that during the overall implementation of the project, the activity-based local beneficiaries would provide the following two main documents to the EN PMU:

The First Action Plan

The First Action Plan defines the individual EN member's first three-monthly activity forecast to be submitted to the EN PMU for obtaining fund­ing. It contains, among others, a review of the current situation, a description of the proposed activities and a financial and output performance analysis of the means required for funding the implementation of the activities planned in the first three months.

l he Action Plan Review and Planning Report is a combination of an ex-post analysis of the effec­tive implementation of the previous period's Action Plan and a formulation of the upcoming three months Action Plan. It provides, among oth­ers, an overview and comparison on the activities and outputs planned and achieved, an overview and comparison on the financial means planned and used and the actual Action Plan for the next three months.

The forms and contents of the Action Plan and the Action Plan Review and Planning Report are pro­vided in annexex of ABF Guide.

Assistance Required/provided

EC technical assistance inputs included 46.5 man months of long-term EU expertise, 6 man months of short-term EU expertise. In-country expendi­tures were approximately Euro 500,000 and cov­ered ABF/FPC funding for the individual ADEs, Project Office running costs and the purchase of selected equipment (computers, furniture, telecommunication equipment) for the Association Resource Centre (ARC).

Materials and Documentation available

ABF Reporting Guidelines (turnkey) ADE Performance Survey Questionnaire (modification required)

Project Details

SME Development Ukraine-Extension of the

ADE Network, SMEUK 9701 EXT,

Project Number - 00/0093.00

Donor — EU-Tacis

Counterpart — ADE Association (UABSC)

Implementation Period — 03.07.2000 till

02.01.2002

Impact assessment

• New training and counselling products and
services introduced within the project's ADEs

* Professional skills of ARC'S and Ukrainian
ADEs' staff enhanced.

• Reporting Guidelines & Funding Agreements
for ABF and FPC-based funding prepared and
individual Works Plans and corresponding
Funding Agreements for existing and new
Ukrainian contractors concluded and imple-­
mented.

• SME Support Services provided through
existing and new Ukrainian contractors mon-­
itored, evaluated and audited by ARC staff.

• Regional fact-finding missions identifying
new Ukrainian contractors carried out and up
to 9 new ADEs created.

• Ukrainian Association of Business Support
Centres (UABSC) created and operational

• BCC's Tacis-funded individual Work Pro-­
grammes approved, implemented and moni-­
tored by ARC.

Resource Creation

For additional consultancy of the Model imple­mentation, the potential users could address Ukrainian Association of Business Support Centres (UABSC)

Mr. Ihor Kabuzenko. Executive Director

4 Pymonenko, Suite і 8 04050 Kyiv Ukraine Tel: +38 044 495 28 57 Fax: +38 044 495 28 57 e-mail: office@uabsc.com.ua

http:// www.uabsc.corn.ua

Printed version and electronic information on CD-ROM of ABD Turnkey Implementation Guide with ABF Reporting Guidelines and standard for­mat templates in Ukrainian, Russian and English can be obtained, contacting EU Project in Ukraine improving of SME environment in Ukraine».

Electronic address: kyiv@,ismee.com.ua Web page: www.ismee.com.ua

LESSONS

In the field of design:

• EU expertise should ideally be maximised in
terms of EU long-term experts deployed and
the flexible deployment of «technical» experts

• A Network of Agency for the Developmen of
Enterprises needs to be managed by a well-
funded centrally-located management unit if
to be successful ABF and FPC have generat-­
ed a greater «return on investment» than tra-­
ditional institutional funding and have bro-­
ught the financial support in line with local
market conditions thus avoiding the «traditio-­
nal» distorting of me market

In the field of sustainability:

• Agencies for the Development of Enterprise
can normally not live from local market un-­
less if deviates from its SME mission, espe-cially in the business generation activities

• It is important to clearly identify the different
income streams being «channelled» to the
local SME Providers and make sure that the
donor funds are clearly set against a set of
activities/outputs/evidence. The activities
funded can also cover internal organisational
strengthening activities

• By clearly indicating for which purpose/acti-­
vity donor funds are used, the danger of «dou-­
ble-funding» is greatly minimised and it al-­
lows the Service Provider to transparently
show to third parties why third party funding
will not entail «double funding»

• The level of activity funding by a donor sho­-
uld immediately/gradually be put in line with
local market conditions

• An ever-increasing local client contribution
should be sought after though a donor/local
authority should be aware that certain activi­-
ties will always require full/partial external
funding

In the field of impact:

• Free-of-charge advice is not taken seriously.
This does not mean that all activities require
a client contribution. Refundable service gua-­
rantees and/or commitment tests may suffice.

• As the service gets more and more professio-­
nal, it is advised that the ADE develops or a
product or a sector speciality.

• The «lead time» for BDS support, is much
longer than initially anticipated arid the com-­
bination of BDS support and «access to
funds» remains an important hindrance.

In the field of scale:

• Working with educational institutions for
business awareness events reaches the highest
number of participants.

• More «professional» courses require smaller
individualised training groups Individualised
client contacting achieves higher returns than
general promotion.

In the field of outreach:

• Client radius for a Agency for the Develop-­
ment of Enterprise is very limited (usually
within city limits).

• «Business Clinics» can provide regional
extension.

• Better to integrate under-served market
groups in normal activities than to create spe­-
cific and bespoke business support services.

In the field of efficiency:

• Best returns are achieved by linking pay-­
ments to activities/outputs.

• Activity-Based Funding (ABF) and/or FPC
links payment to performance for institution­
ally-supported organizations.

• Subcontracting links payment to performance
when sourcing outside BDS services.

• It is very difficult to link payments to actual
impact, especially with the limited time dura-­
tion of the project.

In the field of barriers and risks:

• Cost of Doing Business Surveys are a good
tool to identify SME business development
impediments.

• There is very little a project can do on a local
level to improve the SME environment, ex­-
cept in the field of the «application» of the re-­
gulatory rules and procedures.

• Workgroup-based approaches are the most ef-­
ficient to cause a «change in culture»

In the field of synergy:

• When feasible subcontracting should be used
to link project activities to other EU funded
projects and initiatives.

• There seems to be a lack of donor «corporate
memory».

• As projects kick off at various moments in
time, synergies are often obvious but actually
difficult to achieve due to time implementa-­
tion gaps.

MODEL OF BEST PRACTICE:

«ESTABLISHMENT OF PERMIT CENTER IN IVANO-FRANKIVSK»

"... Improvement of the permit­ting system in the sphere of business, simplification of the state registration procedure of the business entities..."

From the National Programme to Support Small Entrepreneur-ship Development in Ukraine

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

Issuing permits in the sphere of business activity is considered as one of the most complicated pro­blems and demands systematic improvement.

Analysis of current Ukrainian legislation shows that several substantial problems in the sphere of issuing permits exist on the national level:

• An unjustifiably long list of permits;

• Duplication by authorised institutions of the
terms of reference for issuance some permits;

• Indefinite order of interaction in the permit is-­
suing process between local self government
institutions, local state administrations and
regional branches of central bodies of execu-­
tive power;

• Unclear and non-transparent stages of the
permit procedures;

• An indefinite number of organizations invol­-
ved in permit issuing process, time and mo-­
ney expenditures, documents needed and re-­
quirements for their issuance.

By means of analysis of the results of a Question­naire among heads of permit institutions in raions and towns in the Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, the abo-

ve given list of problems was extended with the regional level problems, as follows:

• Low competence of permit institutions' em-­
ployees in raions and small towns in terms of
familiarity with the legal basis to exercise
permit procedures;

• Difference of permit procedures exercised by
the same permit institution but at diverse ter-­
ritorial sub-branches;

• Unsatisfactory registration of issued permits
(lack of statistical data);

• Lack of data about appeals against negative
decisions of permit institutions.

The main task is to improve, simplify and opti­mize the current practice of permitting businesses in Ivano-Frankivsk town in the framework of cur­rent legislation and in terms of reduction of time costs, document requirements and money costs. This has the aim of developing and implementing an improved scheme for realization of permit pro­cedures, which will enable the simplification of the system of issuance permits for businesses in Ivano-Frankivsk town. This will require:

• Creation of sustainable political preconditi-­
ons for the development of entrepreneurship
and new job creation;

• Initiation of proposals to be entered into the
draft Law of Ukraine «On permit system in
the sphere of business activity»

Local governments should be satisfied that regu­lations concerning permits are necessary, fair, ef­fective, balanced, and enjoy a broad degree of public confidence. In order to achieve all these things, good regulations and their enforcement should be measured against five principles:

• transparency,

• accountability,

• targeting,

• consistency,

• proportionality.

Introducing new regulations concerning permits, or redesign of implementation procedures should not be done without careful assessment of the options, and planning of the regulations.

The target group for these activities includes busi­nesses of the town of Ivano-Frankivsk

CHOICE OF SOLUTION

Initiatives to improve the issuing of permits could include:

• Design of legislation itself,

• Interpretation of the legislation and regulations,

• Enforcement of the regulations;
or

• Better provision to entrepreneurs of informa-­
tion concerning compliance with regulations.

This final point — information provision — is of­ten one of the most important and overlooked fac­tors in improving the business environment for SMEs.

There are also a few problem-solving variants that could be used:

1. Improvement in some specific directions, that
foresee:

• revision of the number of existing permits;

• revision of competence of authorized for per­
mits issuance institutions;

revision of some permits procedures.

2. Integrated improvement, that foresees:

• establishment on legislative level the unified
requirements to legal act which regulate the
permit system;

• mandatory statute by laws not only responsi-­
ble for permits issuing authorities, but also
cases for permitting and types of permits;

• ascribing to exclusive jurisdiction of the Par-­
liament authorities to determine an order of

• issuing permits that will dis-enable duplica­tion of functions and will clearly identify an interaction of permits issuing institutions.

3. Introduction of mechanisms of One-stop Shops for permits issuance.

These proposed approaches to improvement of the permit system are not mutually exclusive ones. However, the realization of the first two ap­proaches seems to be possible solely at the feder­al level.

The process also foresees information distribution among the stakeholders about best tried and test­ed mechanisms of improvement of the permit re­gime at a local level and within the framework of present legislation. When it is impossible to solve problems by local government bodies, relevant changes to the legal acts will be initiated and sub­mitted for adoption by central level institutions.

Actions of local government bodies within this sphere should not been ignored. In the regions prototypes of future mechanisms of permit regi­me simplification may be invented and tested. Later these mechanisms may be used as the basis for making changes in the federal level legal acts.

Best practices already exist in some regions of Ukraine. For example: the «Dialogue-centre» at Kryvyy Rih City Executive Committee efficient­ly provides consulting services in the sphere of business activity. In the "Dialogue-centre" busi­nesses may receive permits and approvals; a «Single Office» at Kherson City Executive Com­mittee; a «Permit Centre» in Chernivtsi City.

With the purpose of choosing the most efficient in present situation approach to improvement of per­mit system on local level a survey of the permit system in Ivano-Frankivsk was undertaken. This was followed up by a study tour to successful per­mit centres in Kryvyy Rih and Kherson.
Случайные рефераты:
Реферати - Великий байкар Леонід Глібов
Реферати - Життя та творчість Євгена Маланюка
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Реферати - Життя та творчість Івана Франка
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